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Glossary of solvents and related terms used in various industries

There are 47 entries in this glossary.
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Term Definition
Acetone

Acetone is the organic compound with the formula OC(CH3)2. This colorless, mobile, flammable liquid is the simplest example of the ketones.

Acetone is used as an organic solvent, an ingredient in many lacquer thinner compounds and adhering liquids; used to remove lacquer adhered knife-cut stencils and lacquer type blockout from screen fabrics.

Adhesive

Adhesive or glue is a compound in a liquid or semi-liquid state that can glue items together. Adhesives can be made from either natural or synthetic sources. Some adhesives are very strong, and very important in modern construction and other industries.

Alcohols

Alcohol is one of the most useful of solvents, both for organic and inorganic substances, but especially the former. It dissolves balsams, essential oils, esters, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, resins, soaps, sugars, most vegetable alkaloids, and a large number of pharmaceutical drugs such as acetanilide, camphor, chloralamide, phenacetin, and phenazone.

The fixed oils and fats are but sparingly soluble in alcohol, a notable exception, however, being castor oil, which is readily dissolved. As regards inorganic substances, alcohol dissolves the hydroxides of the alkali metals, but not the carbonates. Ammonium chloride, and indeed most of the chlorides which are readily soluble in water, are dissolved by alcohol.

Atmospheric pressure

Unit of pressure equivalent to 760 torr (mm Hg).

Azeotrope

A liquid mixture of two or more substances that boils at constant temperature. The mixture cannot be separated by normal distillation, but can be redistilled and reused in its azeotropic form.

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